Robinson Huron Treaty Agreement

The second Robinson contract for the Lake Huron region, commonly known as the Surrender of the Saugeen Peninsula or Saugeen Surrenders, was concluded on October 13, 1854 in suction cups between the Ojibwa Chiefs, who live on the Sauge Peninsula (Bruce) under the direction of Chief Waabadik, and the Crown, represented by a delegation led by Laurence Oliantph. It`s registered as crown contract number 72. Although not negotiated by William Benjamin Robinson, so no “Robinson Treaty,” it is generally included in them. “In both cases, the judge rejected the defendants` positions, which were based primarily on an erroneous characterization of the nature of the contract and the relationship established in the treaty,” said a press release from the Robinson Huron Treaty Litigation Fund. Robinson`s treaties used U.S. precedents that established a model for future contract negotiations and commitments in Canada (see treaties with Aboriginal peoples in Canada). The presence of British troops at the signing and the visit of the Governor General were adapted and extended to numbered contracts (1871-1921). The idea of a pension (annual payment) and the continuation of hunting and fishing rights on Kronland were also taken up from American precedents and applied to post-confederation contracts. Prior to the 1850s, the majority of contracts in today`s Ontario focused exclusively on the Southern Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence River. The need to develop contracts in the Upper Great Lakes has been fuelled by the need for new land for agricultural development and the growing interest of mining companies in exploring the lands of the Upper Great Lakes in search of potential mineral deposits.

In September 1850, the Anishinaabeg (Ojibwe) of the Upper Great Lakes signed two separate but interconnected contracts: the Robinson Superior Treaty (RST) and the Robinson-Huron Treaty (RHT). These agreements allowed the Province of Canada (Eastern Canada and Canada West, future Quebec and Ontario) to access the northern distances of the Huron and Obersee for the exploitation of colonies and minerals. In return, the indigenous peoples of the region were granted recognition of hunting and fishing rights, a pension (annual payment) and a reserve of certain lands for each signatory community. The interpretation of Robinson`s treaties had legal and socio-economic consequences for indigenous and settler communities and precedents established for subsequent numbered contracts. In July 1855, in the nearby Floodwood Crossing (now Allenford), representatives of the Ojibwa Indians went with government officials to a meeting later called “Allenford Pow-Wow.” The conference resolved a border dispute over the terms of the 1854 Treaty of Sageen. Ojibwa`s interpretation of this contract held “Copway`s Road”, an Indian road from the village of Saugeen to Lake Hurone, as the border of the country they surrendered on the north side of the Saugeen River. Lord Bury, Chief of Staff for Indian Affairs and senior government representative, accepted this interpretation, which gave the Indians an elevated fa├žade on Lake Hurons and eliminated a significant source of friction. [2] Treaties are unique agreements of the Crown and First Nations in Huron and Lake Superior, whose long-term goal was peaceful and respectful coexistence in common territory. Treaties are part of the constitutional structure of this country. These are not just contracts. Robinson`s treaties did not begin as contracts and did not turn into contracts to defend legal restrictions. The 30,000 people who live on the more than 40,000 square kilometres of the contract each receive $4 a year, a sum that has not increased since the 1870s.

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